15 April 2021
1300 794 893

Global recovery watch - what's the risk of another mid-year growth scare?

Shane Oliver
21 March 2012

Key points

The last two years have seen a solid start for shares give way around May to worries about a double dip back into global recession and 15 per cent plus falls in share markets.

Could the same happen this year? Risks clearly remain, but there is also a good chance that after two disappointing years shares will surprise on the upside.

Key indicators to watch are Italian bond yields, the US ISM index, Chinese money supply, the Australian dollar and oil prices.


So far this year we have seen solid gains in global share markets. Economic news has been positive with receding tail risks regarding Europe, greater confidence of continued growth in the US and some lessening of worries about China. But there was also a burst of confidence in early 2010 and early 2011, which gave way through the June and September quarters of both years to worries about a dip back into global recession. As a result many naturally fear the same will happen this year. This note looks at the risks.

The double dip worries of 2010 and 2011

In 2010, shares rose solidly into April with Australian shares rising above the 5000-level. However, shares fell sharply in the June quarter on the back of worries about the ending of the first round of US Quantitative Easing (QE1), the intensification of the European debt crisis, a fall in business conditions in the US and China and worries about the impact of central bank tightening (in China, several emerging countries and Australia). From their highs in April to mid-year lows, US shares fell 16 per cent, global shares fell 15 per cent and Australian shares fell 15 per cent before rallying solidly into yearend.

Similarly in 2011, shares started the year well with US shares making it above pre-Lehman levels and Australian shares getting back to 5000. However, once again shares and other risk related assets were hit, starting in the June quarter and this time continuing into October. The drivers were the Japanese earthquake and resulting supply chain disruptions, a surge in oil prices in response to civil wars in the Middle East, rising inflation particularly in emerging countries, the end of QE2 in the US, monetary tightening (in China, Europe), falls in business conditions indicators globally, America’s debt ceiling impasse & debt downgrade, worries about significant US fiscal drag in 2012 and a renewed intensification of the European debt crisis. This time the correction was even more severe with US shares falling 19 per cent from their April high to their October low, global shares falling 21 per cent and Australian shares falling 22 per cent.

So what’s the risk of a rerun this year?

Several considerations suggest there is a risk of a re-run of the last two years:

  • Yet again, share markets have started the year off strongly with US and global shares up 12 per cent year to date and Australian shares up five per cent. (Australian shares are up but still lagging thanks to relatively higher interest rates, the strong Australian dollar and worries regarding China.)
  • Oil prices have surged on the back of strong emerging country demand and tensions regarding Iran.
  • There is still uncertainty regarding a hard landing in China, Brazil has slowed to just 1.4 per cent and India has slowed but still has inflation issues.
  • The eurozone has likely now entered into recession.
  • Greece may still have a messy default and there is a risk that Portugal may follow the same path as Greece.
  • Investors might start to fret about the US election, particularly the huge fiscal drag equal to 3.5 per cent of GDP that will occur next year as the Bush era tax cuts expire and various other stimulus programs end.
  • Alternatively, investors might start to fret about another US rating downgrade if it’s thought the Presidential election will result in an outcome that makes it hard for agreement on a long term plan to get the deficit down.
  • Bond yields are starting to rise and this may pressure growth and share markets.

However, there are a number of counters to this.

  • Shares are cheaper than at their early 2010 and 2011 in terms of the earnings yield pick up they provide over Government bonds. This can be seen in the next chart.
  • The US housing sector looks like it’s bottoming, with a rise in homebuilders’ conditions pointing to a further improvement in housing starts ahead and falling delinquencies pointing to a peaking in foreclosures.
  • Business conditions indicators, notably the US ISM index, have improved after last year’s falls but haven’t yet reached the cyclical highs they got to a year ago. In other words, there could still be plenty more upside.
  • US politicians are likely to come to some sort of agreement to slow the short-term fiscal drag – just as they did last year.
  • The situation in Europe is improving. The ECB has provided cheap three-year funding to eurozone banks heading off the risk of a GFC-style funding crisis. Greece has received a second bailout and the portion of its debt owed to private bondholders has been cut by more than 50 per cent. While risks surround Portugal it is much smaller than Greece and given it has followed its bailout terms precisely eurozone officials appear more open to supporting it. The European debt firewall looks likely to be expanded by combining the remaining €240bn in the existing bailout fund (EFSF) with the €500bn to be in the new bailout out fund (ESM) which should clear the way for additional IMF support. So if Greece does enter a messy default its impact on the rest of Europe should be manageable. Reflecting all this, the spreads between Italian, Spanish and French bond yields on the one hand and German bond yields on the other have narrowed.
  • Global monetary policy has been easing. Bank reserve ratios have been cut in China and India. Interest rates have been falling in emerging countries including in Russia and Brazil, and in Europe and Australia. The European Central Bank, the Bank of England and the Bank of Japan have all expanded their quantitative easing programs (pumping cash into their economies). The Fed has undertaken Operation Twist to keep long term bond yields down and has been undertaking a mild form of QE via the provision of cheap dollar funding and has extended its commitment to keep interest rates to near zero out to late 2014. This is very different to a year ago when global monetary conditions were actually tightening.
  • While the generational lows and in some cases record lows seen in bond yields, combined with extreme investor positioning in bond funds, point to the risk of a 1994-style bond crash this seems unlikely. The rise in bond yields in 1994 was underpinned by a significant rise in official cash rates in the US, Europe and Australia, but that is extremely unlikely this time around. If anything, the Fed is likely to intervene at some point to ensure that the rise in long bond yields doesn’t go too far if it looks like adversely affecting the economic outlook. It’s also the case that so far bond yields are still well below year ago highs. For example, the US ten year bond yield at 2.4 per cent compares to a high of 3.6 per cent last April and the Australian ten year bond yield at 4.3 per cent compares to a high of 5.7 per cent last April.
  • Finally, it seems everyone is talking about the rally in shares as being unsustainable and the likelihood of a rerun of the last two years. When everyone expects something, sometimes it doesn’t happen.

On balance, while there will likely be bouts of volatility, and the period from May to October is often weak, we remain of the view that this year will be far better for risky assets like shares than the last two have been.

What to watch?

Nevertheless, it’s still early days yet, so we suggest watching the following indicators:

  • Bond yields in Italy, Spain and France as a guide to whether the European debt crisis remains under control – so far so good with Italian spreads to Germany actually falling though the recent back up in global bond yields. See the previous chart.
  • The US ISM index – again so far so good with the ISM trending higher but remaining well off the virtually impossible to beat highs it reached early last year.
  • Chinese money supply growth as a guide to the Chinese economic outlook. This has slowed from around 30 per cent year-on-year in 2009 to around 15 per cent year-on-year, but does appear to be stabilising.
  • The Australian dollar – again so far so good. The Australian dollar is a good barometer of global health and while it has come off its recent highs it remains strong.
  • World oil prices – at present, the rise has not been enough to choke off global growth. But if oil prices rise another $US20 a barrel or more it could become a problem.

Concluding comments

Behavioural finance reminds us that investors have a tendency to give more weight to recent experience than is rationally justified. The last two years have seen an outbreak of double dip worries from around April/May resulting in 15 per cent plus falls in share markets, so it’s natural to assume the same this year. But things are rarely that simple and while some sort of correction is almost inevitable in the months ahead there is a good chance that after two years of disappointing returns shares will surprise on the upside this year. Given that shares are cheap relative to alternatives, monetary conditions are very easy and there is lots of money piled up in bond funds that could flow into shares my bias is the latter. But it’s early days yet and so worth keeping an eye on Italian, Spanish and French bond yields, the US ISM index, Chinese money supply growth, the Australian dollar and oil prices.

For advice you can trust book a complimentary first appointment with Switzer Financial Services today.

Important information: This content has been prepared without taking account of the objectives, financial situation or needs of any particular individual. It does not constitute formal advice. For this reason, any individual should, before acting, consider the appropriateness of the information, having regard to the individual’s objectives, financial situation and needs and, if necessary, seek appropriate professional advice.

Click here to subscribe to the Switzer TV channel on YouTube and keep up to date with all of our shows.

Subscribe to our Switzer Daily newsletter and get our latest articles, videos and podcasts straight to your inbox!

Get the latest financial, business, and political expert commentary delivered to your inbox.

When you sign up, we will never give away or sell or barter or trade your email address.

And you can unsubscribe at any time!
1300 794 893
© 2006-2021 Switzer. All Rights Reserved. Australian Financial Services Licence Number 286531. 
homeshopping-cartphoneenvelopedollargraduation-cap linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram